wmacostfall2019 project 2

Project by group wmacostfall2019

Info

Explore Work on this next!
What do we know about plants from our experiences outside of school? What have we discovered in class and background research? What questions about plants interest us?
Research Question What do we want to test or study? How did we come up with the question(s). How does the question fit what we know about the topic?
Predictions What are the possible outcomes of our study given the variables we are working with? What is our explanation for why and how we think this will happen?
Experimental Design What is our plan? Be sure to include enough detail that another group can replicate our experiment. What variables will we test? What variables will we measure and observe? What variables will we keep constant? How will we record our data?
Conclusion What claim can we make from our experiment? What are possible explanations for our results? How do the data we collected and our reasoning with scientific ideas support our claim? What future experiments could be done to expand on the results of this experiment?

Updates

Get to know your team’s scientist mentor, who will encourage and guide you through the scientific process of discovery. The more you share your ideas and research info, the more your mentor can help. You may also hear from a scientist mentor liaison who will be helping all the teams in your class.
PlantingScience Staff
has been updated by administrator
PlantingScience Staff
has been updated by administrator
PlantingScience Staff
said
Farewell and Best Wishes
As this research project is now in the final stages of wrapping-up, we wish to thank everyone who participated in this inquiry; the students, mentors, teachers and others behind the scenes. We appreciate all of your efforts and contributions to this online learning community.

Scientific exploration is a process of discovery that can be fun! There are many unanswered questions about plants just waiting for new scientists to consider, investigate, and share.

After the end of the session, we will be updating the platform and archiving groups and projects, after which time new updates/posts will not be able to be added to projects or groups. Please come back and visit the PlantingScience Project Gallery anytime to view this project in the future. You can search the Gallery by keyword, team name, topic, or school name.

Good bye for now.
Warm regards,
The PlantingScience team
PlantingScience Staff
said
Looks like you are in the final stages of your projects.
It’s great to see that teams from your school are wrapping up and posting conclusions. Enjoy the final stages of your project, and feel free to post any final comments or questions you have for your mentors.
Thomas Dobrenel
said

@Gracie: If I follow you correctly, this means that the plant grew higher when the light was not coming directly from above?

@Emily: That's an interesting observation. BTW, plants don't perceive green light (that's the reason why plants are green, the chlorophyll (which is the green pigment giving the leaves its colour) is absorbing light radiations with an exception for wavelengths corresponding to green colour in the visible spectrum).
I also think it might come from the quantity of light perceived by the plants rather than water (especially if you watered all the plants equally).

As a general question: When you measure the plants, do you place them upright to measure the stem length? Didn't you observe that the plants are leaning towards light. I recommend you to google "phototropism" to have a look at what I mean.

great job all of you

Thomas Dobrenel
said

hello, you are doing a great job so far. I am a little curious, did you notice anything special regarding how the plants are growing depending of the light angle, besides the height?

    Emily
    said

    Hi! Thanks for getting back to us. I think the only visible thing we've noticed over the course of the experiment besides the height changes is the color of the plants. I've noticed that on the "side angle" plants, some of the leaves turned yellow, whereas most if not all of the leaves in the lighting directly above is a healthy green color. None of our plants wilted to my knowledge, so I don't believe it's a watering issue (although our schedules don't allow us to water as regularly as we probably should). Perhaps this is happening because some leaves aren't getting enough light energy to absorb the red and green light as effectively as other leaves. 

Gracie
said

Hi Thomas, we have noticed that the plants have grown towards the light. The final measurements for the plants were plant 1: 10.5 cm, plant 2: 12 cm, and plant 3: 11.5cm. 

Emily
said

Hi! We watered our plants after not watering them over the weekend. For each plant, we watered them approximately half a plastic cup of water. Plants 2 and 3 were bottom watered and Plant 1 was watered normally, like the last time. We then measured the height again: Plant 1 is 8cm, Plant 2 is 9cm, and Plant 3 is 10cm. The variation in the height could be a result of the soil, because I've noticed that the soil could be dense or lightly packed, which could take away from the true height of the plant. There could also be human error because the plant might not be held straight enough for measuring. The measuring might not be done accurately. All of these sources of error could be a factor in the results of the lab. 

Emily
said

Hi! Today we watered our plants after a few days with no water. I bottom-watered plants 2 & 3 with approximately half a plastic cup for each plant. I also watered plant 1 half a plastic cup of water, too. We then measured the new height of the plants: plant 1 is 9 cm tall, plant 2 is 11 cm, and plant 3 is 9 cm. These measurements were taken from the soil to the the tallest plant in the cup. It doesn't seem like the plants were affected to much from the lack of water, but they have been responding well to the light treatments. We will be sure to keep you updated on any progress. 

Ron
said

Update:

We watered the plants with 30 c.c. yesterday and 10 c.c. today. We also put it under different light angles for each plant. One 90 degree angle, second 0 degree angle, and third 45 degree angle. We will start observing progressing changes.

Emily
said

Hi! We also decided to remove the plants from the plastic cups they were in so thee light could truly be horizontal. Because of this, we decided to "bottom water" our plants by tilting a tray and placing the plants at the bottom so water would gather. In addition to the 10 mL of water we added before setting up our actual light-angling experiment, we added approximately half a plastic cup of water to each of the trays. We will be sure to note any progress and/or changes in our experiment.

Gracie
said

Hi! Yesterday I watered the plants with 30mL of water. We set up our experiment today because all of the plants have started to grow. We watered all of the plants with 10mL today. Here is the data we collected for today.

Plant 1- light angle 90^o (vertical)

Plant 2- light 0^o (horizontal)

Plant 3- light 45^o

Height recorded based off of the tallest plant.

 

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Height initial (cm)

6cm

11cm

7cm

Emily
said

Hi! I will be sure to double check with my peers tomorrow, but I think it took about 9 days between when we planted the seeds and when we saw them germinate. I think this number would have been a little shorter if we had put them in a water-retaining container sooner, but we will probably begin our lighting experiment this week at some point. On Friday, we added approximately 30 mL of water to keep it moist throughout the weekend since no one would have been around. We will be sure to keep you updated on any progress tomorrow when we meet for class. Thanks!!

Thomas Dobrenel
said

Great!! congratulations!!!!!!

Just by curiosity, how long did it take in total for the seeds to germinate?

Emily
said

Hi! After placing the peat pots in the plastic cups and giving them a more generous amount of water (50mL), two seeds started to break through the soil in cups 1 and 3. Today we only added 20 mL of water to the cups so we don't overwater. We don't have class tomorrow but we will have someone in our group swing by tomorrow to check any progress and water the plants again.

Katie
said

Hi!

Yesterday we added more water than we have been in the past. This new set up was hoped to assist in growth through "bottom watering" as had been suggested. Today we checked the progress and we can tell there has been growth so far. We will keep you updated!

Katie

Ron
said

Update:

It started growing! Container 1 and 3 plants broke the soil. We watered each plant again with 30 cc of water. Hopefully plant 2 is going to grow. I think 30 cc of water is the best amount to water each day since it grew from last time. We will keep you updated.

Gracie
said

Correction: we watered them with only 20mL of water, not 30mL.

Gracie
said

The bottom watering worked! Plants 1 and 3 have started to grow. We watered each plant with 30mL of water today because the top of the soil was still a little wet. We will check back in tomorrow to see if plant 2 starts to grow. Once they have all started to grow we will set them under different angles of light. 

Gracie
said

We added more water this time than in the past because we predict that most of the water will go through the peat pot again. This water will than gather in the plastic cup and continue to water the plant from the bottom like Viviana suggested. Thank you for the help!

Ron
said

Update:

Yet I still don't see any growth from the plants. The plants still haven't broke the soil yet. We added 50 ml of water again into each cups. Hopefully we are not under watering or overwatering the plants. We are trying to figure out the amount of water that would make it grow. We will continue to keep you updated, thanks.

Emily
said

Hi, today we are placing the peat pots into plastic cups to hopefully retain more water than before. In addition, we are adding 50 mL of water to each of the pots/cups to play around with which water amount our seeds like the best. There is still no noticeable difference in the growth, but hopefully placing the pots into the cup will help with plant growth.

Thomas Dobrenel
said

it is indeed quite important to keep the soil moist but don't overwater either. Seeds need oxygen to germinate as well as seedlings need it to grow. Just follow the instructions given by Viviana and that should help a lot

Ron
said

Update:

There was not a significant of growth for the plants. We think that adding more water might help it grow. We added 30 c.c. of water each container, and hopefully it will grow. We also placed the pots into plastic cups, so we can make sure the water stays there. We will keep it updated, thanks!

Gracie
said

Thank you Thomas and Viviana!

I do suspect that a lack of water is the issue, so we are going to place the current pots inside of plastic cups so that the water doesn't escape. The top was dry again today with still no growth. We watered it with 30 mL again. I predict that this change will result in growth because other groups in our class that used plastic containers have plant growth occurring. 

I will keep you updated, Grace.

Emily
said

Hi! Today we added approximately 30 mL of water to the plants. There is still no noticeable growth, at least any growth that has broke through the soil. I think the problem is that none of the water is being contained in the pot, so minimal water is actually saturating the soil long enough for the seed to use it and grow. To remedy this, I think a plastic cup large enough to fit around the peat pot that we are currently using could be used; we would simply have to place the peat pot inside a plastic cup. Another option would be to just transfer the seeds into a plastic cup all together. In general, I think the only thing wrong with our experiment so far is that a water isn't saturating the soil and the seeds enough and/or for a long enough time. We will keep you posted! 

Viviana June
uploaded How_to_bottom_water.jpg in project files
    Viviana June
    said

    This is the bottom watering guide!

Thomas Dobrenel
said

indeed, it can take longer for the plants to germinate. You just have to be patient. As I said to another group, make sure that the surface of the soil is kept moist and water the pots by the bottom. That way, when the top is moist, it means that all the soil is also humide.

good luck and have a nice weekend

    Viviana June
    said

    Viviana (the liaison here). I 100% agree with Thomas about the bottom watering, and I actually made a diagram for my project group to describe how to properly bottom water a plant. I'll upload it to the Files section here so that you all can see it too.

Ron
said

Update:

The plants are still under the lights. We added 30 ml of water to each plant. I did not really see any growth of the plant. It is still under the soil, but we can be patient and keep waiting. I will keep it updated.

Katie
said

Hi Thomas!

Yesterday we did nothing to the plants, except left them under the light as normal. We added 30 mL of water to each plant as well. No noticeable growth beyond the soil has occurred yet, but that is completely fine because it has only been 4 days since we even planted the seeds.

Gracie
said

Hi Thomas,

Today we added 30mL of water. The soil was dry because we did not have class yesterday and the plants went 48 hours without being watered. There is still no plant growth, so I will be more cautious of the plants having enough water.

Thomas Dobrenel
said

Concerning the amount of water to put, it strongly depends on the humidity in the room. Just make sure that the surface of the soil is moist (or at least not completely dry).

Maybe you can wait a couple of days between the seed break and the beginning of the experiment as the first few days, plant growth is not exclusively related to light perception but also depends on the storage in the seeds. In your case, there is really little storage in the seeds so that a couple of hours should be enough but better play safe and wait a 1 or 2 days.

Katie
said

Hello! So far, our lab is going well. We have performed all of the steps of the procedure to set it up, and now we are just waiting to begin seeing results. We have kept the amount of water (25 cc) the same, the light have remained constant, and we are hoping that our lab continues on the right path. Beekeeping everything that could possibly derail our experiment under control in terms of consistency throughout our samples, we lessen the amount of room for error when looking to find how the angel of light affects the rate of photosynthesis (our essential question). We will not be on again until friday because we do not have class, but we are looking forward to sharing our progress!

Emily
said

Hi! Today is Day 3 of our experiment. We added approximately 25 mL of water to eat peat pot both yesterday and today. Do you think that is enough water for every 24 hours? It seems like the water is being completely absorbed by the saturation seen with on the pot, but I just want to be sure that there will be enough water for a 24 hour period. So far, there isn't any plant growth, but I will be sure to keep you posted on the progress of the experiment. Once the seeds break through the soil, we will begin our experimentation with the effect of the angle of lighting. 

We don't have class tomorrow (Thursday) so we won't be able to check the progress until Friday, and we will be sure to update the feed concerning any progress seen in our experiment. I don't suspect that any growth will appear until after the weekend, but that depends on if and how much water it receives over the weekend. I look forward to hearing your feedback!

Thomas Dobrenel
said

Hello. That is a nice experimental design. @Gracie, it is a really good idea to first check that there is no variation between the "samples" before the beginning of the experiment.

Just keep going, you are on the right track. Looking forward to seeing what results you will obtain.

Good luck

Ron
said

Update: We added additional 25 cc of water to each plant. They have been under the light the whole time since the experiment has started; someone accidentally took it off the light by a couple seconds, hopefully that wouldn't affect the whole experiment. 

Gracie
said

Hi Thomas,

Today we added 25 mL to each plant. They are under constant light. Do you have any suggestions or concerns with the idea of starting the plant growth before testing the effects of light angle on its growth? The reason we decided to do it was to make sure that each container contains seeds that are not defective, or in other words they won't have an issue growing for reasons outside of the light angle being tested.

Katie
said

We began conducting our radish seed lab today. Below is the procedure we plan to follow for this experiment. So far, we have carried out the preparation steps 1-3, and the potted seeds are ready to be used. Looking forward to telling you more as the lab moves forward!

Emily
said

As of right now, the experiment we're going to run is as follows:

Group 2: Gracie, Emily, Katie, Ron

 

AP Biology

Mrs. Cost

21 October 2019

 

Radish Seeds

 

Purpose: 

The purpose of this experiment is to test whether or not different angles of light affect the growth of radish seeds.

 

Hypothesis:

I hypothesize that a vertical flow of light (directly above the seed/plant) will result in the most growth of the radish seed due to the fact that at 90o the plant will receive maximum light exposure and smaller angles will receive a lower light exposure. Because light is a reactant of photosynthesis, the most amount of light a plant can receive will result in more photosynthesis reaction, which will cause more plant growth.

 

Materials:

  • Radish Seeds

  • Soil  (Note: Brand of the soil is “Jiffy”)

  • Containers for planting

  • Artificial lighting (3)

  • Water

  • Books (or something else to elevate the light to the desired angle)

  • Tape 

  • Two boxes 

 

Procedure:

  1. Plant radish seed into a container full of potting soil. Make sure the seed is covered with soil

  2. Water the seed until the soil is moist.

  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2, two additional times for a total of three plants.

  4. Place all three plants under the same artificial light at 90o until all of the seeds have started to grow through the soil.

  5. Record the initial height of the plants.

  6. Place one plant under a light elevated at 90o (directly above the plant by hanging the light)

  7. Using books elevate the remaining two lights to 60o and 30o, respectively.  

  8. Separate the three plants by placing a box in between them so that the different lights don’t affect the experiment.

Ron
said

Update: We put approximately 20 ml of water in each of the container.

Ron
said

Update: We are currently doing the radish seeds light angle experiment. We planted 5 seeds in each container, and the container is 2.5 inches in diameter. We used "Jiffy Natural and Organic" soil; the brand of the soil is "Jiffy".

Thomas Dobrenel
said

If you really want to look at the plants before stopping the experiment, you should shut every source of light and use a green lamp (plants don't perceive green light) but that might be a little tricky to establish as you should really avoid any source of white light (even dimmed...)

Gracie
said

Thank you.

We will measure the final biomass when we get back to school on Wednesday. Today we just checked on the experiments under the light and took pictures of them. The experiment with water started to grow and the one without water did not. We added and additional 2mL of water to the water and light dish. We took your advice and did not check on the seeds in the dark, so that we wouldn't effect our final results. 

Thomas Dobrenel
said

Just a quick advice. On top of measuring the biomass, I would also recommend you to take a picture of the plants. You should be able to see something interesting

Ron
said

Hi, we are about to have a 4 day weekend starting Saturday. So we are not going to start the different angles of lightings lab yet. But we did start a lab on "Where do radish seeds get their mass from?". Before we started, I predicted that the mass of seeds with lighting and water, and the seeds with just water would increase their mass. I also predicted the seeds with no water and just light would not increase its mass. To set up the experiment, we have three petri dishes placed with paper towel at the bottom and the seeds on top. We added 2 ml of water in petri dish 1 and 2. We then placed petri dish 1 and 3 under the light, and petri dish 2 without light. We will come back from long weekend and hopefully be able to see great results. Looking forward to it, Thanks!

Katie
said

Hi Thomas!

We are going on a long weekend and we decided this was the best time to begin a new experiment. We are pushing back the radish seed lab we were planing on until we get back on October 16th. Until then, we decided to do a different radish seed lab to test the essential question of "where do plants get their mass? To answer this, we will have three petri dishes with radish seeds in them, experiencing different conditions.  Inside of the petri dishes, we placed paper towel with seeds on top. Each dishes different, so in dishes 1 and 2, there was about 2 mL of water on the paper towel, and in petri dish 3  there was no water. Petri dishes 1 and 3 are under light the classroom and dish 2 is inside a dark drawer which we will not open until we get back on the 16th. When we return, we will observe the changes, and collect data which we will share with you. Talk soon!

Thomas Dobrenel
said

hello, that sounds like a good experiment. I would just advice to keep the drawer closed during the whole experiment and open it only at the end. There are indeed some mechanisms that can be induced in plants by a really short light flash. To avoid that, just keep your seeds in the dark all the way.

Emily
said

Hi! We have a long weekend coming up so we won't be in school for 5 days. Because of this, we decided to postpone the original radish seed lab until we get back next Wednesday (Oct. 16). As a class, we decided to use spare radish seeds and perform an additional experiment that requires less interaction on our part so we can come back on Oct. 16 and see progress.

For this additional experiment, we wanted to answer the essential question: Where do plants get their mass? To answer this question we decided to grow spare radish seeds under different conditions to see which condition resulted in the biggest increase in mass. Got got three petri dishes and placed paper towels in the lid of the petri dish. We then got a sample of seeds from Mrs. Cost which were placed into each petri dish, making sure to keep measuring the mass throughout the experiment. Once the seeds were on top of the paper towels, we saturated the paper towel and seeds with approximately 2 mL of water in petri dishes 1 and 2. Petri dish 3 does not have water. The other variable we are testing is how exposure to light can affect plant mass and growth. Petri dishes 1 and 3 are under artificial lighting in the classroom while Petri dish 2 is in a dark drawer. 

Our group will check the progress of the seeds when we return to classes on Oct. 16 and compare the results to our hypotheses that we created today prior to experimentation. Please let us know if you have any suggestions for the improvement of the lab! 

Gracie
said

Hi Thomas, thank you for the suggestions. I'm not sure if we have a set timeline yet but if I had to guess it will probably be at least a week. We are about to have a short vacation from school starting Friday after noon until the 16th. Because of this break we won't be starting the light angle lab this week. Instead we are doing a lab to test where plants (radish seeds) get their mass from. As a class we predicted that water and nutrients, such as CO2, contribute to plant mass. From this prediction we set up a lab where dish #1 contains about l.0g of radish seeds, about 2mL of water and constant light, dish #2 contains 1.0g of radish seeds, about 2mL of water, and no light, and dish #3 contains 1.0g of radish seeds, no water, and constant light. All dishes were in the same type of container and contained a folded paper towel under the seeds. I predict that the seeds with water and light (dish #1) will increase in mass the most, the seeds with just water (dish #2) will increase in mass by absorbing the water, but will not grow as much as dish #1, and that the seeds with light and no water (dish #3) will decrease in mass because they will get dried out. We recorded the initial masses of the lids without seeds, with seeds, and then with again with water if it was added so that will will have something to compare the final masses to. Please let me know if you have any questions or suggestions. Thank you! -Grace

 

Thomas Dobrenel
said

Hello everybody, the seed growth experiment you are suggesting sounds really promising. I would recommend to avoid having to many plants per pot as it will generate some shadow for the neighboring plants and might raise wrong observations. Maybe just 2 or 3 per pot might be enough.

Concerning the type of soil, that would be great if you could have access to some soil used for gardening. Otherwise, any soil can be used as long as it is the same for all the pots (make sure to mix it carefully between distributing it in the pots to avoid any variation).

I have then a more general comment. You are planning to check the effect of light angle on growth rate. How long are you planning to keep the experiment running? I would recommend you to make sure that, once the experiment is set up, you don't turn the lamp or the pot for your observations, you should then observe something really interesting...